Tuesday, December 06, 2011

155] A Malay view of "Ketuanan Melayu"


A Malay view of 'Ketuanan Melayu'
Azly Rahman | Feb 4, 08 2:51pm




‘O people! Your God is one and your forefather (Adam) is one. An Arab is not better than a non-Arab and a non-Arab is not better than an Arab, and a red (i.e. white tinged with red) person is not better than a black person and a black person is not better than a red person, except in piety. Indeed the noblest among you is the one who is deeply conscious of God.’

- a saying of Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon Him)

‘Malaysia - to whom does it belong? To Malaysians. But who are Malaysians? I hope I am, Mr Speaker, Sir. But sometimes, sitting in this chamber, I doubt whether I am allowed to be a Malaysian. This is the doubt that hangs over many minds, and ... [once] emotions are set in motion, and men pitted against men along these unspoken lines, you will have the kind of warfare that will split the nation from top to bottom and undo Malaysia.’ 

- Lee Kuan Yew, now Senior Minister, Republic of Singapore

Instead of defining Ketuanan Melayu as ‘Malay superiority’ which is quite meaningless, philologically inaccurate, and philosophically arrogant, I think the word ‘dictatorship’ is closer in meaning. As you read this piece, please refrain from value judgment and from bring trapped in the prison-house of language pertaining to the word ‘dictatorship’.

To dictate connotes to tell, which connotes to narrate. To narrate means to weave a story based on an ideology. To ideologise means to encapsulate. To encapsulate means to be trap. Dictatorship, here might also mean an entrapment. Instead of acknowledging one's freedom to rule, one is acknowledging being in an entrapment - and to rule out of that condition. This is a form of false consciousness.

Words, as a literary theorist Raymond Williams might say, must also be contextualised/situated within the economic condition they emerge in. Marx's famous dictum that human beings' existence is defined by the economic condition they are in and that this condition is already predetermined. This is a deterministic view of human history.

I first read heard the phrase Ketuanan Melayu in the mid-1980s from a book by one Malik Munip. I was reading his work, at the same time reading Lim Kit Siang's ‘Malaysia in the dangerous 80s’, to get a sense of the argument. I was an undergraduate reading Literature, Education and International Politics.
I also heard that Malay students were discouraged from reading Kit Siang's work and encouraged to read ‘Ketuanan Melayu’. I love banned books and books that others tell me not to read. There is a sense of intellectual challenge to be able to read banned books.

I read Mahathir Mohamad's ‘The Malay Dilemma’ and Syed Husin Ali's ‘Malays: Their Problems and their Future’ and Syed Hussein Alatas’ ‘The Myth of the Lazy Native’ at the same time. Again, to get a sense of balance.

I read Malaysian official publications on economic outlook, juxtaposing them with a close reading of analyses on the political-economy of the Malaysian capitalist state.

I read the work of Freud and Marx to see where some of the major authors of the Frankfurt School of Social Research are going with their arguments on totalitarianism. I read the Quran and the Bhagavad Gita, the Ramayana, and the Mahabharata to see where the arguments on race superiority lie and what the fate of humankind will be.

The idea of social dominance and racial superiority might all be primarily about economics, if we are to read the history of the development of ideologies of superiority. But my question is - who has the right to claim that this or that land belongs to this or that group of people. At what point does culture and citizenship meet and negotiate the issue of egalitarianism? When does ‘the truth of one's culture’ reach its limit and the question of ‘the truth of citizenship’ dominate?

This is a very complex question Malaysians must answer after 50 years of Independence. We must open up the dialogue on this issue.

Lyrical propaganda

Let us look at how the idea of ketuanan Melayu is disseminated to the young. One way is through indoctrination camps in which songs are used.
Over the decades, perhaps millions of Malay students like me were taught the dangerous propaganda song, ‘Anak Kecil Main Api’(A Child Plays with Fire). One verse concerns the power of the Malays::

… kini kita cuma tinggal kuasa
yang akan menentukan bangsa
hasil mengalir, ke tangan yang lain
pribumi merintih sendiri…

My loose translation of this 1980s propaganda song by the Biro Tata Negara reads:

… political power is what we are only left with
one that will determine the fate of our nation
wealth of this nation flows into the hands of others
sons and daughters of the soil suffer in solace...

I do not think we have a clear understanding of what the lyrics mean. I doubt if the songwriter even understand what a 'people's history of Malaya' means. It is a song based on racist intents; its lyrics penned by one who does not have a good grasp of the political-economy of Malaysian history, let alone the latest advances in the field of psychology of consciousness.

The training programes that encapsulate the theme of this song are meant to instill fear of the Malays, not of others but of themselves, and to project hatred onto other ethnic groups without realising who the enemy of the Malays really are.

Using relaxation techniques to bring the brain waves in the alpha and state (conducive for suggestive and subliminal messages), trainees were put under ‘half-asleep’ conditions to get the ketuanan Melayu message to colonise the consciousness. The technique pioneered by Russian brain scientists Barzakov and Lozanov in the1970s, called ‘suggestopedia’, is used to instill the deep sense of fear for oneself and hatred of others.

History is a complex syntagmatic pattern of interplay between technology, ideology, culture, inscription and institutionalisation not easily reduced to simplistic lyrics as such sung to the tune of pre-war German-nationalistic-sounding compositions.

History is about the complex evolution of the ruling class which owns the technologies of control. As Marx would say, at every epoch it is the history of those who own the means of production that will be written and rewritten. The winners write history, the losers write poetry or study anthropology, some would lament.

Back to the lyrics. After 50 years of independence, who is suffering in Malaysia? Who has become wealthy? Who has evolved into robber barons? What has become of our judiciary system, our universities, our city streets, our sense of public safety and security, our schools, our youth, and our entire socio-economic arrangements at the eve of the 12th general election. How has the idea of ketuanan Melayu contributed to this state of affairs?

Language of power and ideology is at play in those lyrics. The definition of ‘bumiputera' is at play. It has become a problematic word in this age of deconstructionism; an age wherein as the poet WB Yeats said, "the centre cannot hold".

Rock musicians will recall the Scorpions' famous song 'Winds of Change' to serenade the fall of the Berlin Wall and the beginning of the breakdown of the Soviet Empire. We have to face the 'wrath' of the word.

Put an end to Ketuanan Melayu

For Muslims in Malaysia, this saying by Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) is familiar: ‘Your descent is nothing to be proud of. Nor does it bring you superiority. O people! All of you are the children of Adam. You are like equal wheat grains in a bowl ... No one has any superiority over anyone else, except in religion and heedfulness. In order to consider someone a wicked person, it suffices that he humiliates other people, is mean with money, bad-tempered and exceeds the limits…’

I would say that ketuanan Melayu is a dangerous concept that is threatening race relations. It is an arrogant interpretation of selective history; of a history that is largely benefiting those who profits from the ideology.

Those promoting this concept are not well-versed in the matters of philosophy of history. I do not think thinking Malays these days subscribe to the idea of ‘Malay dominance and dictatorship’. If there is a ketuanan of one race, then the rest are ‘slaves’ and ‘serfs’ and ‘sub-citizens’, if we are to analyse it from the point of view of ‘Master-Slave’ narrative?

As a Malay wishing to see the withering of and an end to the concept of ketuanan Melayu and the birth of a new consciousness that will respect the dignity of all races and the humility of all ethnic groups, I call upon Malaysians to continue to be critical of any attempt by any race to project their own sense of false superiority that would only breed dangerous ethnocentrism bordering on xenophobia.

We should work together to deconstruct all forms of race-based political arrangement and work towards establishing a new order based on a more egalitarian economic design that takes into consideration the basic needs and dignity of all races.

We should teach our schoolchildren how to deconstruct such sense of racial superiority, through the teaching of not only tolerance but social egalitarianism - via peace education strategies. We will have a lot to gain for generations to come.

58 comments:

dahvid said...

Ahh.. I instantly see hints of 'Foucauldianism' and social constructionism. Good write up.

moo_t said...

China has underwent the Animal farms part in 60's. USSR are not better. Many south American country also share Animal farms characteristic. Middle east, well, we know that, Africa, a mess.

I doubt majority of Malaysia aware the real danger Napoleons from the "Ketuanan Melayu".

Leo said...

Dear Dr Azly,

I have sent an email with this article of yours attached, to quite a number of my friends and associates, and it reads like this ....

" ...You have got to read this essay to appreciate Azly Rahman's tight and indepth argument on a highly pertinent subject. Although the front bits are throughly articulated, I had wished the ending has more expansive substance.

But then again, I suspect he will tackle the core idea discussed at the tail-end of this essay, in another fresh and yet connected piece of writing. You must admit to expand on his prime suggestion of what should be done eventually to right the wrong, requires quite a different set of thinking, and may well need some researching..."

david said...

my goodness!

it took you all these years of study and government funding--which is from taxpayers' pocket--for you to realise that the concept of 'ketuanan melayu' is dangerous?

Anonymous said...

Dr. Azly,

I am glad and sad at the same time with intellectually inclined malays like your self.

Your article is good. It brings into focus the often overlooked reality that there is a class of Malay intellectuals who see the world from a more sensible, accomodative angle.

But even you could not bring yourself to not include the religious element into your otherwise perfectly universal articulation.

Even when you write for the 'world' you include religious caveats... just in case some other muslim takes offence !

Well, I guess you can not run away from certain realities. Not everyone is gutsy enough to simply call a 'spade a spade'.

Anonymous said...

Won't you be afraid if people calls you the "pengkhianat Melayu"

With all due respect to your articles but its becoming part of malay culture.

DR. AZLY RAHMAN said...

Dear "anonymous",

Thank you for your valuable comment.

I think I am doing a service to those interested in reading about multiculturalism. How might discussing "issues of race" make one a "traitor"?

What do you think of the arguments I raised in the article?

Anonymous said...

Ketuanan Melayu to me means Melayu remains as Tuan di Tanah melayu, itu aje. You can do anything you want but Melayu remains the Tuan, in this case Raja mesti melayu, adat mesti Melayu based. KTM remains Keretapi Tanah Melayu. You can be a fool but still own the land. Nothing about Malay superiority. There is nothing rascist in Ketuanan Melayu but racial is probably the right word. What a waste of money to study this in the University..

Azmi said...

I remember Tok Guru Nik Aziz said in one of his speech' regardless we are Malays, Indians, Chinese, etc. we are all brothers because we all came from Adam (puh)' and Islam promotes respect of inter-religions. 'Race' is a non-issue.

In th song 'Where Is The Love' by the Black Eyed Peas-
"But if you only have love for your own race, Then you only leave space to discriminate, And to discriminate only generates hate And when you hate then you're bound to get irate, yeah"...
How true!!

S. Navin Kumar said...

The concept of `Ketuanan Melayu` is meaningless for most Malays who remain the poorest among the major races. The real `Tuans` are the elites linked politically and econimically to UMMO, MCA, MIC, GERAKAN. The Malays whom I know do not at all care about this `Ketuanan Melayu`. They work hard and live a honest life. But I don`t know about those linked to the ruling party. We only hear about `Ketuanan Melayu` once a year during UNMO General Assembly, invariably brought up by delegates who portray themselves as champions of the race but real intention is to get government contracts and tenders !

nick chan abdullah said...

In simple terms, I have known some malay kampungs where the malay people look up to non-muslim as a Tuan. As long as there's improved religious education, malays won't find problem with non-muslim being Tuan.

kumbahkarno said...

Dear Dr Azly

i have just read your article and it brings me great satisfaction to learn we have distinguished intellectuals and deep thinkers of elite class from this part of the world, and even more hebat from the shores of my Malaya. i cannot bring myself to say Malaysia because i prefer how this place was administered in the past; and how harmonious it was then, without self-serving politicians abusing the definition of unity. your depth and deliberations are cutting age and your conclusions the hallmark of an individual who champions the philosophy that we are born equal, and our actions,consideration to others and compassion are the very qualities we would be judged by. i do hope you will continue to share your wisdom with many in your motherland

Anonymous said...

What's wrong with Ketuanan Melayu. The Chinese is the master in it's own land, so does the indian and other races too. However, they don't mention it b'cause majority is not an issue there. However in Tanah Melayu itis critical. So as a Malay we have to say it out loud. So, why can't Malay be the tuan in Tanah Melayu.

Anonymous said...

fair enough, i still feel that the melayu community still need to get that idea. at present the masses still believe that they can demand a place or a position solely based on our bumiputera status...things like that never happen in australia or newzealand..do u see the natives of australia or any modern nation unfairly distributing contracts and so on based on one's race.
Come on, we have to wise up or we will lose out,at this rate soon we are going to be begging singapore for a share of its wealth, just based on the premise tht they were once part of us... i know, it sounds absurd, probably just about absurd as 'ketuanan melayu' sounds to a non malaysian..

ck said...

Dear Anonymous who say "what's wrong with Ketuanan Melayu"

Surely nothing is wrong if you still have those feudal mentality. You are your own worse enemy.

What about Iban or Dayak or Orang Asli?

Look what happened to Ketuanan Afganistan or Ketuanan Iraq?

Whether you are majority or minority, one thing is certain, we are Malaysian. Why not called ourselves Ketuanan Malaysian and be proud of that!

Anonymous said...

Love your piece, Dr Azly
So then it would be politically incorrect to name our railway system Keretapi Tanah Melayu and classify some Malaysian citizens as "non-Bumiputera". There are also some "patriotic" we innocently sang in school containing the phrase "agama, bangsa dan negara", with the obvious reference to one particular agama and bangsa ...

Anonymous said...

May I say that the causes of the rise of concept of Ketuanan Melayu arises from a very popular quote: " Melayu mudah lupa". Malay in general are unaware or refuse to understand that the country was found together with the cooperation of various races of the country. Also, there are Malays who forget that the country is Malaysia, a democratic federation, not Malaya which the idea of Malaya should have been dropped with the founding of Malaysia

red1 said...

I been a chinese who embraced Islam and having debated this subject up close, cannot help but deepened my sense of awe at why Malays talked about their superiority in an inferior manner?

Mahathir told it to me in a more economical choice of words,
"This is my land, my money. You got any problem with that?" (more or less, if you want to exercise economy of words here)

We chinese are fine with anyone's land and anyone's money for that matter (even better if it is OPM - Other People's Money). We do not mind throwing more dimes into the tiller. We just worried sick that brandishing kerises may get a bit out of hand. :)

Redhuan D. Oon

Anonymous said...

Dear Dr

Saya amat tertarik dengan komen DR dan ia sangat menarik dan adil, Dr adalah seorang Muslim yang tulen atau seorang Muslim yang dapat di bilang dengan 10 jari. inzinkan saya memberikan beberapa fakta.

Malaysia telah 50 tahun merdeka, bayi yang lahir semasa merdeka dahulu pun dah berumur 50 tahun.Tetapi malangnya majority orang Melayu masih belum maju dan banyak lagi yang hidup serba kurang.Saya orang Cina, Saya mempunyai ramai kawan Melayu.Dan boleh saya katakan mereka tidak perkauman. Mereka lebih baik daripada orang cina. Cuma orang Melayu yang sombong dan bongkak dengan ketuanan melayu adalah orang melayu kelas atasan dan kelas politik. Ketuanan Melayu yang di perjuangkan ialah untuk kepentingan politik murahan individu.

Dan yang teramat dashyat ialah orang munafik telah menghalalkan perkauman yang mereka tiupkan dengan agama islam. Patutke Islam dipergunakan?

Mari kita tengok, setiap tahun ada beribu ribu orang cina dan india memeluk agama kristian di malaysia. Tapi Islam bagaimana? Dengar saje Islam bagi mereka adalah melayu. Mereka takut.(bukan benci) Salah siapa kalau bukan pemerintah? Saya rasa eloklah Islam dan Melayu dipisahkan demi memelihara kesucian agama islam. islam adalah agama dan melayu adalah kaum.

CHAN said...

I WISH U ARE OUR MALAYSIAN MINSTER OF EDUCATION.I AM GLAD TO READ SUCH CONSCOUSNESS FROM MY FELLOW MALAYSIAN.I AM LEARNING.

CHAN said...

BY THE WAY I AM CHINESE MALAYSIAN 40PLUS WHO HAD ENCOUNTER EXPERIENCES WHICH LEFT RACIAL EMOTIONAL SCARS N FEARS IN ME.THEREFORE YOUR BLOGS HELP TO STABLE OR CLEAR SOME OF THESE EMOTIONS. I BELIEVE MANY DARE NOT CLEARLY N TRUTHLY EXPOUND ON SUCH ISSUES.I FOR ONE DARE NOT.CALL ME A COWARD U WANT TO.I ACCEPT IT.THE PROFESSIONALS THAT I SOUGHT HELP FROM IS RELUNCTANT TO HEAR RACIAL PROBLEMS N RELUNCTANT TO EVEN RESPONSE IN PROFESSIONAL MANNER.I JUST READ N UNDERSTAND THE MAIN IDEAS IN THIS BLOG N AM IS RELIEVE BY IT.THATS SIMPLE.I DO NOT WANT DO MENTAL ANALYSIS N COMMENT ON THEM.SORRY?SLIGHTLY DIFFERENT FROM WHAT U EXPECT TO READ? I JUST WANT FEEL THE `CONSCIOUSNESS`OF THE TRUTH IN THE ARTICLE.THANK U DrAZLY RAHMAN

ande ande lumut said...

Salams Dr. Azly,
Good to know that you wish to discuss with a measure of seriousness about ketuanan melayu - though I suggest that for those of you out there who sem to think that it corresponds to the notion of "malay dominance'to take a step back. As far as i understand it, the idea seems to more consistent with the notion of 'cultural sovereingty' in the same sense, I gather, as the complex ways in which, say an Arab, would describe large parts of the mid east and northern africa as 'arabic'. Tis is not to say that this idea is in anyway beyond contention - after all much discussion of identity(s) in the in the latter part of the twentieth century is understood in that manner. And viewing it from a historical perspective I don't think its to excessive to suggest that Malaysia as we know it today, was and is very much part of what is generally recognised as rumpun melayu asia tenggara.

I think perhaps the greater danger lies in the way in which the idea of 'ketuanan melayu' has been appropriated by politicians and their cohorts in the media.

Your reading of the 'past' (in these post modern times one wonders whether its still acceptable to use the term!)as impressive as it is in terms of its sophistication nevertheless may not be necessarily congenial to an understanding of the kinds of socio-historical approach which may shed better light on our past (and present!).

Though there is still much that can and ought to be said on the subject, I think that may require a different forum.
Ps, by the way, as far as I am aware, Malik Munip has never written something called 'Ketuanan Melayu' - what he did write was an essay published in book form called 'Tuntutan Melayu' (which though I may disagree with some of its arguments, was nevertheless an intelligently argued polemic on Malay cultural sovereignty - something akin I guess to similar efforts by earlier nationalists such as those schooled at Sultan Idris teachers college, the MNp and so on).
Thank you

Anak Malaysia PRO Malaysian said...

Dr Azly,

Highest respect to you. You're truly 1 modern malay with brain. Syabas!

Ketuanan or tak ketuanan is not a matter of issue to other religious. As long as the goverment and the person who move the countries is fair and provides good improvement to the countries, all of this is fine.

But make sure the leader do not practice corruption, silent assignation and political threats.

muthu r said...

Dr azly Rahman, you are a true anak malaysia I am very proud we have people like you with open mindedness,syabas Dr we are all in support of your motion truely. I am a ex BBMB officer who did my MBA in U.K sponsored by the Bank but sad to say today BBMB is non existent due to ???????ra mismanagement. I suggest all organisations should have corporate governance .

ccdev said...

hey dude,

you are a thinker and intellectual but how many of malays are like you? Many malay friends that i know are of the "wait-n-see-what-happens" or leave it to God type attitude. apathy, man. Unless all of you act as a group, things will not get better.

And when I read stuff like this http://www.malaysiawaves.com/2008/07/umnos-latest-psy-war-materials-exposed.html, damn, the brainwashing is so ingrained in the system. Then you have to dismantle the system which is stupefying a certain group, as people's mind and psychological conditioning will not be changed by hope alone.

ccdev said...

The link again

http://www.malaysiawaves.com/2008/07/umnos-latest-psy-war-materials-exposed.html

ccdev said...

sorry,

the link ain't coming out right.

its http://www.malaysiawaves.com

and the article is "UMNO's latest psy war material exposed" on July 10, 2008

Anonymous said...

makin banyak belajar hang ni rupanya makin 'sengal'. berpijakla dibumi nyata bro...

A said...

Salam, Dr. Azly.

I've read several writings of yours before putting in my comment. I like what I read thus far.

Let me conclude my view gathered from my reading herein: if one day, God willing, I offer myself to be the next prime minister of Malaysia and win, I'll have your name in my list of the management team, ideally, as the Education Minister. Its my ambition to have our local public universities to be in the top 200 world class universities.

I'll resume my reading now.

Anonymous said...

Kepada Anonymous 11:32pm dan semua pembaca

Di negara China (People Republic of China) majoriti rakyat nya (80%-90%) kaum Han (Tionghua), 10%-20% rakyat negara China bukan kaum Han, tapi di China tidak ada system Ketaunan Han (Ketaunan Tiong Hua).

Kaum Han (Tiong Hua) di China tidak ada hak istimewa, sebaliknya kaum kaum minoriti lain di China yang dapat hak istimewa seperti bantuan masuk sekolah, prioritas dan bantuan masuk universiti, boleh beranak lebih dari satu (kaum Han hanya boleh satu anak) dan lain lain lagi. Negara China itu komunis, Malaysia negara kita ini demokratik, tapi negara kita ini dalam issue Ketuanan Kaum kalah kepada negara komunis.

Di India lebih berbilang kaum (dan berbilang budaya) daripada China dan Malaysia. Di India juga tidak ada Ketuanan Kaum. (Kaum Tamil hanya salah satu kaum di India)

Presiden India yang sebelum ini orang Islam walaupun majoriti rakyat India beragama Hindu.

Perdana Menteri India sekarang kaum Sikh dan beragama Sikh walaupun kaum Sikh hanya kaum minoriti di India.

Anonymous said...

Kepada mereka yang masih pegang ke Ketuanan Melayu, ini mesej kepada mereka:

Ketuanan Melayu = Zionis Israel

Orang Melayu datang dulu ke Malaysia, Melayu ada hak istimewa keatas semua di Malaysia, tanah, ekonomi, universiti, jawatan kerajaan dan lain lain

Orang Yahudi datang dulu ke Israel/Palestin, Yahudi ada hak istimewa keatas semua di Israel/Palestin, tanah, ekonomi, jawatan kerajaan dan lain lain

Kaum lain di Malaysia wajib menerima Ketuanan Melayu, kalau ada yang menentang darah akan mengalir atau di tangkap

Kaum lain di Israel/Palestin wajib menerima Ketuanan Yahudi, kalau ada yang menentang darah akan mengalir atau di tangkap.

Mereka yang pegang kepada Ketuanan Melayu berkerjasama lah dengan Zionis Israel, pasti banyak lagi yang boleh dipelajari untuk menindas dan menipu rakyat Malaysia. Tidak lama kemudian Malaysia akan jadi seperti Zimbabwe, kroni Ketuanan Melayu jadi kaya tapi semua rakyat yang lain termasuk majoritas kaum Melayu akan menderita.

Shah said...

Dr Azly, the only things that bridges Melayu and Ketuanan Melayu is Islam. Melayu has an Islamic integrity that upholding the privilages. If the Islamic integrity is not being uphold, the ketuanan Melayu clause would be meaningless in which is happening today where corruptions and abuse of power is widely practised even in Government Agencies. From my experience racial issues is still a major consern in Malaysia. Hardly found a chinaman company hiring more other races than chinease same goes to indians and other bumi's company. We have to accept the fact that human are very much comfortable with their similarity rather than differences. 80% islamic Malay has a strict borderline between halal and haram that is not giving advantages to them in a capitalist world that allow unscropulous business deals. For most Chinease and Indians, selling liquer, gambling and loan shark activity is legal. But not in Islam. Unless they are accepting a strict islamic rules than only I am 110% will support the abolishments of ketuanan melayu. Otherwise, Malay people has to be given more casinoes licences, more 4D license, more liquer licenses and more loan shark licenses and you will enjoy the degradation of pure islamic teachings in Malaysia. If we think Raju will govern better tha Ali or Ah Chong we are wrong. As you are pointing out everybody should be given a fair deal, but not in governing. Even a strict Quran guidelines cannot deter people from abuse of power how can other religion would do so?

Anonymous said...

WHO ARE THE MALAYS BY RACIAL STOCK – A PROFESSOR OUTLINES the DEVOLUTION OF TRIBES FROM THE YUNNAN AREA



Written by a Professor of National University of Singapore. It reflects the Anthropologists views that there is no such race as the "Malays" to begin with. If we follow the original migration of the Southern Chinese of 6,000yrs ago, they moved into Taiwan, (now the Alisan), then into the Phillipines (now the Aeta) and moved into Borneo (4,500yrs ago) (Dayak). They also split into Sulawesi and progressed into Jawa, and Sumatera. The final migration was to the Malayan Peninsular 3,000yrs ago. A sub-group from Borneo also moved to Champa in Vietnam at 4,500yrs ago.
Interestingly, the Champa deviant group moved back to present day Kelantan. There are also traces of the Dong Song and Hoa Binh migration from Vietnam and Cambodia. To confuse the issue, there was also the Southern Thai migration, from what we know as Pattani today. (see also "Early Kingdoms of the Indonesian Archipelago and the Malay Peninsular")
Of course, we also have the Minangkabau's which come from the descendants of Alexander the Great and a West Indian Princess. (Sejarah Melayu page 1-3)
So the million Dollar Question... Is there really a race called the "Malays"?
All anthropologists DO NOT SEEM TO THINK SO. (strangely, this includes all Malay Malaysian Anthropologists who are of the same opinion.)
Neither do the "Malays" who live on the West Coast of Johor. They'd rather be called Javanese. What about the west coast Kedah inhabitants who prefer to be known as "Achenese"? or the Ibans who simply want to be known as IBANS. Try calling a Kelabit a "Malay" and see what response you get... you’ll be so glad that their Head-Hunting days are over.
An excerp is reproduced here below:
"The Malays – taken as an aggregation of people of different ethnic backgrounds but who speak the same language or family of languages and share common cultural and traditional ties – are essentially a new race, compared to the Chinese, Indians and the Arabs with their long histories of quests and conquests.
The Malay nation, therefore, covers people of various ethnic stock, including Javanese, Bugis, Bawean, Achehnese, Thai, Orang Asli, the indigenous people of Sabah and Sarawak and descendants of Indian Muslims who had married local women.
Beneath these variations, however, there is a common steely core that is bent on changing the Malay persona from its perceived lethargic character to one that is brave, bold and ready to take on the world. "
The definition of “Malay” is therefore simply a collection of people's who speak a similar type language. With what is meant by a similar type language does not mean that the words are similar. (A native Kelantanese native speaker has no clue whatsoever what his Iban native brother is talking about; if both speak their own dialect) Linguists however, call this the "Lego-Type" language, where words are added on to the root word to make meaning and give tenses and such. Somehow, the Indonesians disagree with this "Malay" classification and insist instead on being called "Indonesians" even though the majority of "Malays" have their roots in parts of Indonesia. They refuse to be called "Malay"…. Anyhow you may define it.
The writer failed to identify (probably didn't know), that the "Malay" definition also includes, the Champa, Dong Song, HoabinHian, The Taiwanese Alisan and the Philippino Aetas. He also did not identify that the "Orang Asli" are (for lack of a better term) ex-Africans. If you try to call any one of our East Malaysian brothers an "Orang Asli", they WILL BEAT YOU UP! I had to repeat this because almost all West Malaysians make the same mistake when we cross the South China Sea. Worse, somehow, they feel even more insulted when you call them “Malay”. Somehow, “kurang ajar” is uttered below their breath as if “Malay” was a really bad word for them. I’m still trying to figure this one out.
Watch “Malays in Africa”; a Museum Negara produced DVD. Also, the “Champa Malays” by the same.
With this classification, they MUST also include the Phillipinos, the Papua New Guineans, the Australian Aboroginies, as well as the Polynesian Aboroginies. These are of the Australo Melanesians who migrated out of Africa 60,000yrs ago.
Getting interesting? Read on...
"Malay" should also include the Taiwanese singer "Ah Mei" who is Alisan as her tribe are the anscestors of the "Malays". And finally, you will need to define the Southern Chinese (Southern Province) as Malay also, since they are from the same stock 6,000yrs ago.
Try calling the Bugis a "Malay". Interestingly, the Bugis, who predominantly live on Sulawesi are not even Indonesians. Neither do they fall into the same group as the migrating Southern Chinese of 6,000yrs ago nor the Australo Melanesian group from Africa.
Ready for this?
The Bugis are the cross-breed between the Mongolian Chinese and the marauding Arab Pirates. Interestingly, the Bugis, (just like their Arabic ancestors) were career Pirates in the Johor-Riau Island areas. Now the nephew of Daeng Kemboja was appointed as the First Sultan of Selangor. That makes the entire Selangor Sultanate part Arab, part Chinese! Try talking to the Bugis Museum curator near Kukup in Johor. Kukup is located near the most south-western tip of Johor. (Due south of Pontian Kechil) He is more than willing to expound on the Bugis heritage. Buy him lunch and he can talk for days on end.
Let's not even get into the Hang Tuah, Hang Jebat, Hang Kasturi, Hang Lekiu, and Hang Lekir, who shared the same family last name as the other super famous "Hang" family member... Hang Li Poh. And who was she? Legend tells us that she is the Princess of a Ming Dynasty Emperor who was sent to marry the Sultan of Malacca. Won't that make the entire Malacca Sultanate downline "Baba"? Since the older son of the collapsed Malaccan Sultanate got killed in Johor, (the current Sultanate is the downline of the then, Bendahara) the only other son became the Sultan of Perak. Do we see any Chinese-ness in Raja Azlan? Is he the descendant of Hang Li Poh? But wait a minute....
That's what legend says. Let's look at the proof. The solid evidence. There is a well next to the Zheng He Temple in Malacca which is supposed to be the well built by the Sultan of Malacca for Hang Li Poh. According to legend, anyone who drinks of it shall re-visit Malacca before they die. Hmmm smells like a romantic fairy tale already. But let's look at who Hang Li Poh actually is. Which Ming Emperor was she a daughter to? So I got into researching the entire list of Ming Emperors. Guess what? Not a single Ming Emperor's last name begins with Hang. In fact, all their last names begin with Tzu (pronounced Choo). So who is Hang Li Poh? An Extra Concubine? A Spare Handmaiden? Who knows? But one thing for certain, is that she was no daughter of any of the Ming Emperors. Gone is the romantic notion of the Sultan of Malacca marrying an exotic Chinese Princess. Sorry guys, the Sultan married an unidentified Chinese commoner.
Next question. If the Baba’s are part Malay, why have they been marginalized by NOT BEING BUMIPUTERA? Which part of “Malay” are they not? Whatever the answer, why then are the Portugese of Malacca BUMIPUTERA? Did they not come 100yrs AFTER the arrival of the first Baba’s? Parameswara founded Malacca in 1411. The Portugese came in 1511, and the Dutch in the 1600’s. Strangely, the Baba’s were in fact once classified a Bumiputera, but some Prime Minister decreed that they were to be strangely “declassified” in the 1960’s. WHY? How can a "native son of the soil" degenerate into an "un-son"? The new classification is "pendatang" meaning a migrant to describe the Baba's and Nyonyas. Wait a minute, isn't EVERYONE on the Peninsular a migrant to begin with? How can the government discriminate? Does the Malaysian Government have amnesia?
The Sultan of Kelantan had similar roots to the Pattani Kingdom making him of Thai origin. And what is this "coffee table book" by the Sultan of Perlis claiming to be the direct descendant of the prophet Muhammed? Somehow we see Prof Khoo Khay Khim’s signature name on the book. I’ll pay good money to own a copy of it myself. Anyone has a spare?
In pursuing this thread, and having looked at the history of Prophet Muhammed (BTW, real name Ahmad) we couldn't figure out which descendant line The Sultan of Perlis was. Perhaps it was by the name Syed, which transcended. Then we tried to locate which downline did the Sultan descend from of the 13 Official Wives of Prophet Muhammad named in the Holy Koran? Or was the Sultan of Perlis a descendant from the other 23 non-wives? Of the 13 Official Wives were (at least known) 3 Israeli women. Then you should come to this instant revelation, isn't Prophet Muhammad an Israeli himself? Yes, the answer is clear. All descendants of Moses are Israeli. In fact, the Holy Koran teaches that Moses was the First Muslim. Thus confirming all the descendants of Moses to be Israeli, including Jesus and Prophet Muhammad. But since this is not a Religious or a Theological discussion, let's move on to a more anthropological approach.
So, how many of you have met with the Orang Asli’s (Malaysian Natives)? The more northern you go, the more African they look. Why are they called Negrito’s? It is a Spanish word, from which directly transalates “mini Negros”. The more southern you go, the more “Indonesian” they look. And the ones who live at Cameron Highlands kinda look 50-50. You can see the Batek at Taman Negara, who really look like Eddie Murphy to a certain degree. Or the Negritos who live at the Thai border near Temenggor Lake (north Perak). The Mah Meri in Carrie Island look almost like the Jakuns in Endau Rompin. Half African, half Indonesian.
Strangely the natives in Borneo all look rather Chinese in terms of features and facial characteristics especially the Kelabits in Bario.
By definition, (this is super eye-opening) there was a Hindu-Malay Empire in Kedah. Yes, I said right… The Malays were Hindu (just like the gentle Balinese of today). It was known by its’ old name, Langkasuka. Today known as Lembah Bujang. This Hindu-Malay Empire was 2,000yrs old. Pre-dating Borrobudor AND Angkor Watt. Who came about around 500-600yrs later. Lembah Bujang was THE mighty trading Empire, and its biggest influence was by the Indians who were here to help start it. By definition, this should make the Indians BUMIPUTERAS too since they were here 2,000yrs ago! Why are they marginalized?
The Malaysian Government now has a serious case of Alzheimer's. Why? Simply because, they would accord the next Indonesian who tomorrow swims across the Straits of Malacca and bestow upon him with the apparently "prestigious title" of the Bumiputra status alongside others who imply have inhabited this land for hundreds of centuries. (prestigious, at least perceived by Malays) They also have a strange saying called "Ketuanan Melayu" which literally transalates into "The Lordship of Malays" The Malays still cannot identify till this day "who" or "what" the Malays have "Lordship" over. And they celebrate it gallantly and triumphantly by waving the Keris (wavy knife which has Hindu origins in Borrobudor. Ganesan is seen brandishing the Keris in a bass-relief sculpture.) during public meetings over National TV much like a Pagan Wicca Ceremony on Steroids. Let's all wait for that official press release to see who the "Malays" have Lordship over, shall we?
Of the 3 books listed, "Contesting Malayness" (about S$32 for soft cover) is "banned” in Malaysia; you will need to "smuggle" it into Malaysia; for very obvious reasons.... :( or read it in Singapore if you don’t feel like breaking the law. Incidentally, the Professor (Author) was invited to speak on this very subject circa 2 yrs ago, in KL, invited by the MBRAS. You can imagine the "chaos" this seminar created... :( Fortunately the FRU was not called in.
The other, "Kingdoms of the Indonesian Archipelago, and the Malay Peninsular" (about RM84) are openly sold at all leading bookshops; Kinokuniya, MPH, Borders, Popular, Times, etc. You should be able to find a fair bit of what I’ve been quoting in this book too, but mind you, it is extremely heavy reading material, and you will find yourself struggling through the initial 200+ pages. It is extremely technical in nature. Maybe that’s why it hasn’t been banned (yet)…coz our authorities couldn’t make head or tail of it? (FYI, if I weren’t doing research for my film, I wouldn’t have read it in its entirety)
The "Sejarah Melayu" (about RM 50) however, is freely available at the University Malaya bookshop. I have both the English and Royal Malay version published by MBRAS. Alternatively, you could try reading the Jawi (Arabic Script) version if you are truly a sucker for unimaginable pain...... (may feel like circumcision)
There are actually many sources for these Origins of Malays findings. Any older Philippino Museum Journal also carries these migration stories. This migration is also on display at the Philippines National Museum in Luzon. However, they end with the Aeta, and only briefly mention that the migration continued to Indonesia and Malaysia, but fully acknowledge that all Philippinos came from Taiwan. And before Taiwan, China. There is another book (part of a series) called the "Archipelago Series" endorsed by Tun Mahatir and Marina Mohammad, which states the very same thing right at the introduction on page one. “… that the Malays migrated out of Southern China some 6,000yrs ago…”. I believe it is called the “Pre-History of Malaysia” Hard Cover, about RM99 found in (mostly) MPH. They also carry “Pre-History of Indonesia” by the same authors for the same price.
It is most interesting to note that the Malaysian Museum officials gallantly invented brand new unheard-of terms such as "Proto-Malay" and "Deutero-Malay", to replace the accepted Scientific Term, Australo-Melanesians (African descent) and Austronesians (Chinese Descent, or Mongoloid to be precise) in keeping in line with creating this new “Malay” term.. They also created the new term called the Melayu-Polynesian. (Which Melayu exists in the Polynesian Islands?) Maybe they were just trying to be “Patriotic” and “Nationalistic”… who knows…? After all, we also invented the term, “Malaysian Time”. While the rest of the world calls it “Tardy” and “Late”. It’s quite an embarrassment actually…. Singaporeans crossing the border are asked to set their watches back by about a 100yrs, to adjust to “Malaysian Time”…
In a nutshell, the British Colonial Masters, who, for lack of a better description, needed a “blanket” category for ease of classification, used the term “Malay”.
The only other logical explanation, which I have heard, was that “Malaya” came as a derivative of “Himalaya”, where at Langkasuka, or Lembah Bujang today was where the Indians were describing the locals as “Malai” which means “Hill People” in Tamil. This made perfect sense as the focal point at that time was at Gunung Jerai, and the entire Peninsular had a “Mountain Range” “Banjaran Titiwangsa”, as we call it.
The Mandarin and Cantonese accurately maintain the accurate pronunciation of “Malai Ren” and “Malai Yun” respectively till this very day. Where “ren” and “yun” both mean “peoples”.
Interestingly, “Kadar” and “Kidara”, Hindi and Sanskrit words accurately describe “Kedah” of today. They both mean “fertile Land for Rice cultivation. Again, a name given by the Indians 2,000yrs ago during the “Golden Hindu Era” for a duration of 1,500yrs.
It was during this “Golden Hindu Era” that the new term which the Hindu Malay leaders also adopted the titles, “Sultan” and “Raja”. The Malay Royalty were Hindu at that time, as all of Southeast Asia was under strong Indian influence, including Borrobudor, and Angkor Watt. Bali today still practices devout Hindu Beliefs. The snake amulet worn by the Sultans of today, The Royal Dias, and even the “Pelamin” for weddings are tell-tale signs of these strong Indian influences. So, it was NOT Parameswara who was the first Sultan in Malaya. Sultanage existed approximately 1,500yrs in Kedah before he set foot on the Peninsular during the "Golden Hindu Era" of Malaysia. And they were all Hindu.
“PreHistory of Malaysia” also talks about the “Lost Kingdom” of the “Chi-Tu” where the local Malay Kingdom were Buddhists. The rest of the “Malays” were Animistic Pagans.
But you may say, "Sejarah Melayu" calls it "Melayu"? Yes, it does. Read it again; is it trying to describe the 200-odd population hamlet near Palembang by the name "Melayu"?(Google Earth will show this village).
By that same definition, then, the Achehnese should be considered a “race”. So should the Bugis and the Bataks, to be fair. Orang Acheh, Orang Bugis, Orang Laut, Orang Melayu now mean the same… descriptions of ethnic tribes, at best. So some apparently Patriotic peron decided to upgrade the Malays from Orang Melayu (Malay People) to Bangsa Melayu (Malay Race) Good job in helping perpetuate the confusion. And since the “Malays” of today are not all descendants of the “Melayu” kampung in Jambi (if I remember correctly), the term Melayu has been wrongly termed. From Day One. Maybe this is why the Johoreans still insist on calling themselves either Bugis, or Javanese til today (except when it comes to receiving Government Handouts). So do the Achehnese on the West coast of Kedah & Perlis and the Kelantanese insist that they came from Champa, Vietnam.
Moreover, the fact that the first 3 pages of "Sejarah Melayu" claim that "Melayu" comes from Alexander the Great and the West Indian Princess doesn't help. More importantly, it was written in 1623. By then, the Indians had been calling the locals “Malai” for 1,500 yrs already. So the name stuck….
And with the Sejarah Melayu (The Malay Annals in page 1-3) naming the grandson of Iskandar Zulkarnain, and the West Indian Princess forming the Minangkabau. Whenever a Malay is asked about it, he usually says it is "Karut" (bullshit), but all Malayan based historians insist on using Sejarah Melayu as THE main reference book for which "Malay" history is based upon. The only other books are “Misa Melayu”, "Hikayat Merong Mahawangsa", "Hikayat Pasai", "Hikayat Raja-Raja Siak" and “Hikayat Hang Tuah” among others; which sometimes brings up long and “heated” discussions.
Interesting to note is one of the great "Malay" writers is called Munsyi Abdullah; who penned "Hikayat Abdullah" He was an Indian Muslim. Let's re-read that little bit. He was an Indian Muslim. How can an Indian change his race to be a Malay? He can change his shirt, his car, his religion and even his underwear, but how can anyone change his race? This must be The New Trick of the Century, which even David Copperfield will pay lots of money to watch (and perhaps learn).
"Mysterious Race Changing Trick"- created by The Malaysian Government.
Still, Malaysians are still only second to the Jews (who by the way, are the only other people in the world who are defined by a religion) So perhaps David Copperfield has yet to learn a few tricks on the mass deception skills of the Malaysian Government?
Malaysia Boleh...
I find this strange.
I also find, that it is strange that the "Chitti's" (Indian+Malay) of Malacca are categorized as Bumiputera, while their Baba brothers are not. Why? Both existed during the Parameswara days. Which part of the “Malay” side of the Baba’s is not good enough for Bumiputera classification? Re-instate them. They used to be Bumiputera pre 1960’s anyway.
Instead of "Malay", I believe that "Maphilindo" (circa 1963) would have been the closest in accurately trying to describe the Malays. However, going by that definition, it should most accurately be "MaphilindoThaiChinDiaVietWanGreekCamfrica". And it is because of this; even our University Malaya Anthropology professors cannot look at you in the eye and truthfully say that the word "Malay" technically and accurately defines a race.
This is most unfortunate.
So, in a nutshell, the “Malays” (anthropologists will disagree with this “race” definition) are TRULY ASIA !!! For once the Tourism Ministry got it right….
We should stop calling this country “Tanah Melayu” instead call it, “Tanah Truly Asia”
You must understand now, why I was "tickled pink" when I found out that the Visit Malaysia slogan for 2007 was "Truly Asia". They are so correct... (even though they missed out Greece, and Africa)
BTW, the name UMNO should be changed to UTANO the new official acronym for “United Truly Asia National Organization” . After all, they started out as a Bugis club in Johor anyway….
I told you all that I hate race classifications…. This is so depressing. Even more depressing is that the "malays" are not even a race; not since day one.
“Truly Asia Boleh”

komando said...

When a POOR Chinese male child is given away to a Malay family at birth he becomes a Malay boy automatically!

When another CHINESE child is also given away she becomes a Muslim girl.

When they meet 20 odd years later, they fall in love and they get married...walah!


Their kids becomes melayu'S

MORE OFTEN THAN NOT BOTH FAMILIES KEEP IT A SECRET FEARING THAT THE CHILD WILL FIND OUT LATER, AND MAYBE FEEL ABANDONED..BETRAYED

WHAT HAPPENS IF BOTH CHILD OF A SAME FAMILY IS GIVEN AWAY AND THE ADOPTED PARENTS CHANGED THE BIN AND BINTI?
THEY MEET AND FALL IN LOVE AND GET MARRIED!

IS NOT THAT CALL "INCEST"
AIN'T THAT A CRIME?

GOD WORKS IN STRANGE WAYS!

What do we have as their off springs?


"ANAK ANAK DAN KANAK KANAK MELAYU!"

CAN ANYONE EXPLAIN THIS TO ME...WHERE DID THE MALAY BLOOD COME FROM..THESE TWO CHINESE HUMANS CAN SUDDENLY TURN AROUND AND CHANGED BLOOD LINES?

CAN WE CHECK THEIR DNA..SEE AND GENETIC TRACES OF MALAY BLOOD?

SO MALAYS OR MELAYU's THINK HARD AND FAST, WHO DO YOU WANT TO BE?

EVEN A PAKISTANI CAN BE CALLED MELAYU!
AN ARAB FROM YEMEN ALSO CALLED A MALAY!
A JAVAN ALSO CALLED MELAYU?

A MAMAK OR MORE SPECIFIC AN PURE INDIAN MUSLIM ( BOTH PARENTS INDIAN ) FROM KERALA IS CALLED A MELAYU AND BECOMES UMNO PRESIDENT AND PM FOR 22 YEARS IN THIS COUNTRY!

MELAYU MUDAH LUPA,

SEBENARNYA HE MEANT TO SAY: "MELAYU SENANG/MUDAH SANGAT DITIPU" !

Anonymous said...

Malay = muslim, berbahasa melayu, amalkan tradisi melayu. So the concept of ketuanan melayu means the leader in malaysia will be a muslim and somone who is capable to preverse the malay culture. Ketuanan melayu also is a concept agreed by the malays, chinese and indians, and brought by those who have endured the hardship of pre-merdeka days a long time ago. Who are you to question those people?

The problem is not the ketuanan melayu concept, The problem is, we have an evil and unjust leaders.

Anonymous said...

Dear Dr. Azly,

I was 7 years old when Malaya gained independant from the British. At that tender age nI did not understand what it was because all I knew was playing withn children of all races without feeling any indeferences. No one asked me if I want to opt for Malayan citizenship or any other. All I knew was living with my parents and enjoying every minute of my life than.

If I had known at the time that Malaya nwould turn out to be another Nazi country I would have opted nforanother country nif the aouthorities had ask me if I want to stay put here. My parents were born in Bagan Serai and Perai from two states and I was born in Taiping, Perak which makes me the third generation of Indian in this country but there are those who just hapen to appear from nowhere holding Malaysian citizenship and enjoying bumiputra nstatus while I and y family memebers who are of the thirs generation haing a second class or may be the third class citizenship.

I'm sure youmust e nporud to be a Malay and calling yourself son of the soil but can I claim the same and demad for my rights under thge nrule mof UMNO? I rest my case Sir.

Anonymous said...

Sorry need to correct typo error.

Dear Dr. Azly,

I was 7 years old when Malaya gained independent from the British. At that tender age nI did not understand what it was because all I knew was playing with children of all races without feeling any in differences. No one asked me if I want to opt for Malayan citizenship or any other. All I knew was living with my parents and enjoying every minute of my life than.

If I had known at the time that Malaya would turn out to be another Nazi country I would have opted for another country if the authorities had ask me if I want to stay put here or else where. My parents were born in Bagan Serai and Prai from two states and I was born in Taiping, Perak which makes me the third generation of Indian in this country but there are those who just happen to appear from nowhere holding Malaysian citizenship and enjoying bumiputra status while I and y family members who are of the third generation having a second class or may be the third class citizenship.

I'm sure you must be proud to be a Malay and calling yourself son of the soil but can I claim the same and demand for my rights under the rule of UMNO? I rest my case Sir.
10:57 PM

ktteokt said...

It is a trend in the whole of this world to protect the minority but only in Malaysia do you find protection being given to the MAJORITY! In the first place, who made them TUANS? This is a self proclamation and if at all they are SUPERIOR, then someone MUST admit to be INFERIOR! If none of the people in Malaysia admits inferiority, then there is no such thing as a SUPERIOR race in MALAYSIA!

ktteokt said...

KETUANAN MELAYU? Get this guys a copy of the RUKUNEGARA and ask them to explain these words found in the PREAMBLE -- ".....membina masyarakat yang ADIL....". How to have a MASYARAKAT YANG ADIL when they insist on ketuanan Melayu? Can they ever reconcile ketuanan Melayu with MASYARAKAT YANG ADIL??????

Anonymous said...

Most of the commentators here don't seem to understand what it really mean by Ketuanan Melayu.

Rather than arousing the anger of the Malays may I suggest to absolutely cut those provoking comments...

Hatihitam

azura.jalal said...

Has anybody said to you that you look very much like Tim Allen?

gurusejarahpencen said...

Tuan Dr.

Kalau ditanya orang Melayu yang berumur 65 tahun keatas,mereka akan dapat menerangkan dengan jelas apa itu "Ketuanan Melayu".Ketuanan Melayu tak ada kena-mengena dengan "Tuan" atau "hamba" atau pemikiran feudal mahu pun konsep orang Melayu lebih mulia dari bangsa asing.Ini semua huraian yang dibuat-buat untuk lari dari maksud Ketuanan Melayu yang hakiki.
Memang tak ada Ketuanan Melayu yang tercatit dalam Perlembagaan Malaysia.Ketuanan Melayu hanya ujud dalam otak dan benak orang Melayu bahawa Tanah Melayu ini adalah kepunyaan orang Melayu.Maksudnya Tanah Melayu ini "Tuannya" adalah orang Melayu.Inilah maksud Ketuanan Melayu yang sebenarnya.Malangnya tidak siapa dikalangan ahli politik kita yang ada telor untuk menerangkan seperti ini,takut disanggah oleh kaum pendatang.
Hakikatnya Ketuanan Melayu ini sudah tidak ada lagi dan sudah lupus dan sudah tidak releven lagi sejak tahun 1948 lagi.Apa bila Dato Onn Jaafar(Presiden UMNO) menerima Perlembagaan Persekutuan Tanah Melayu pada tahun 1948,semua yang berada diMalaya pada waktu itu diterima sebagai warga negara Malaya melalui sistem Jus Soli.Sejak itu Tanah Melayu(Malaya) sudah bukan lagi hak mutlak orang Melayu sahaja.Soal "ketuanan" ada kaitannya dengan "kewarganegaraan"(citizenship) dan juga memilik tanah.
Sahabat kita kaum Cina dan India tak perlu khuatir tentang butiran sejarah ini,kerana "Ketuanan Melayu" sudah tidak ada lagi.Maka itulah sebabnya,pihak Inggeris memasukkan "Keistimewaan Orang Melayu" dalam Perlembagaan untuk menenangkan dan menyenangkan hati orang Melayu kerana orang Melayu sudah kehilangan "ketuanan"nya diatas Tanah Melayu.Isu "keistimewaan" ini pun adalah merupakan sesuatu yang tidak tetap,tidak kekal dan maksudnya pun tidak jelas dalam Perlembagaan.

Anonymous said...

Just popping in to say nice site.

Anonymous said...

MAN HAS HISTORY WITHOUT HISTORY MAN IS NOTHING


1)” Ketuanan Melayu”  was a ‘slogan’ used by our forefather was to remind and unite the Malays with the highest justification of covenant . What is wrong with it ?

(2) The justification of Ketuanan Melayu becomes the ‘rights ‘ when it further stipulates and enshrines in our constitution . What is wrong with it ?

(3) Ketuanan Melayu was not just plucked out from the heavenly sky but had demonstrated in the historical evolution of our nation . What is wrong with it ?

(4) Prior to the coming of the invaders Persekutuan Tanah Melayu existed . It had the sovereign Sultanate of Malay kingdoms whose Governments representing their territories . It came with the order of hierarchy governing with stipulated  laws and principles . What is wrong with it ?

(5) It developed the social ,economic ,cultural orders with strong and institutionalized fundamental values of Islam . Above all , the Malays norms practicing in the customary laws strengthen the ‘rights ‘ that the Malays and the Bumiputra are the ‘Tuan’ of their Tanah Melayu . Unfortunately , the slogan is understood by some as ‘Tuan and servant’ relationship . What is wrong with it ?

(6) We were invaded by the Dutch , the Portuguese than the East Indian Company , later British colonial masters for more than 300 hundred years . At the same time , the exodus of non Malays organized by the Colonial rulers arrived to stay for serving and feeding the Colonial industrial revolution .  They were not welcome . What is wrong with it ?

(7) Our forefathers knew that the Malays should not be like the native Indians of America .The natives Indians were alienated by the white Americans Colonialists . As the result of the political and military power of the Whites  , the natives lost their territories and culture . Today the native Indians ended living in a small-arid constructed reservation land reserved by the White Government. Engaging that , the Malay’s importance prevails in the articles 152 and 153 signature the Malay position . Besides the ‘ rights ' of others are rightly respected and guarded due to our tolerance and acceptance . What is wrong with it ?

(8) Denouncing ‘ ketuanan Melayu ‘ is no crime and politicizing it , is a human crime to the Bangsa Melayu and its existence throughout the evolution of our Malay history and good values of Islam . What is wrong with it ?

(9) We should not be apologetic in propagating the slogan of  Ketuanan Melayu nor it is taken as the sign of Malay weaknesses . We must prescribe the notion and the sprit of ‘ Ketuanan Melayu ‘ for us to move forward for the order of change and achieving progress with dignity in all arenas . We have a CAUSE and our CAUSE is justified because it is our Tanah Melayu . What is wrong with it ?

(10) With this justifiable CAUSE and in upholding the sprit of ‘ Ketuanan Melayu ‘ with sincerity and its fundamental nature of Malays’ tolerance and acceptance , Ketuanan Melayu has served as one of the major principles of Malaysian democracy in a multi cultural ecosystem . It is in the Nation track record and without denial has brought peace harmony and prosperity to our Nation . What is wrong with it ?

With peace in mind  , may Allah SWT bless us all .



 

Ghaf said...

MAN HAS HISTORY WITHOUT HISTORY MAN IS NOTHING


1)” Ketuanan Melayu”  was a ‘slogan’ used by our forefather was to remind and unite the Malays with the highest justification of covenant . What is wrong with it ?

(2) The justification of Ketuanan Melayu becomes the ‘rights ‘ when it further stipulates and enshrines in our constitution . What is wrong with it ?

(3) Ketuanan Melayu was not just plucked out from the heavenly sky but had demonstrated in the historical evolution of our nation . What is wrong with it ?

(4) Prior to the coming of the invaders Tanah Melayu existed . It had the sovereign Sultanate of Malay kingdoms whose Governments representing their territories . It came with the order of hierarchy governing with stipulated  laws and principles . What is wrong with it ?

(5) It developed the social ,economic ,cultural orders with strong and institutionalized fundamental values of Islam . Above all , the Malays norms practicing in the customary laws strengthen the ‘rights ‘ that the Malays and the Bumiputra are the ‘Tuan’ of their Tanah Melayu . Unfortunately , the slogan is understood by some as ‘Tuan and servant’ relationship . What is wrong with it ?

(6) We were invaded by the Dutch , the Portuguese than the East Indian Company , later British colonial masters for more than 300 hundred years . At the same time , the exodus of non Malays organized by the Colonial rulers arrived to stay for serving and feeding the Colonial industrial revolution .  They were not welcome . What is wrong with it ?

(7) Our forefathers knew that the Malays should not be like the native Indians of America .The natives Indians were alienated by the white Americans Colonialists . As the result of the political and military power of the Whites  , the natives lost their territories and culture . Today the native Indians ended living in a small-arid constructed reservation land reserved by the White Government. Engaging that , the Malay importance prevails in the articles 152 and 153 signature the Malay position . Besides the ‘ rights ' of others are rightly respected and guarded due to our tolerance and acceptance . What is wrong with it ?

(8) Denouncing ‘ ketuanan Melayu ‘ is no crime and politicizing it , is a human crime to the Bangsa Melayu and its existence throughout the evolution of our Malay history and good values of Islam . What is wrong with it ?

(9) We should not be apologetic in propagating the slogan of  Ketuanan Melayu nor it is taken as the sign of Malay weaknesses . We must prescribe the notion and the sprit of ‘ Ketuanan Melayu ‘ for us to move forward for the order of change and achieving progress with dignity in all arenas . We have a CAUSE and our CAUSE is justified because it is our Tanah Melayu . What is wrong with it ?

(10) With this justifiable CAUSE and in upholding the sprit of ‘ Ketuanan Melayu ‘ with sincerity and its fundamental nature of Malays’ tolerance and acceptance , Ketuanan Melayu has served as one of the major principles of Malaysian democracy in a multi cultural ecosystem . It is in the Nation track record and without denial has brought peace harmony and prosperity to our Nation . What is wrong with it ?

With peace in mind  , may Allah SWT bless us all Malaysians .


 

Anonymous said...

yang teramat mulia dr azly,
saya sebagai muslim yg berketurunan melayu amat bangga dgn bangsa saya walaupun bangsa melayu bukannya satu bangsa yg bertamadun tinggi.tapi saya berasa amat kesal seorang muslim berbangsa melayu sperti yang teramat mulia dr azly ada dikalangan kami...setinggi mana ilmu tuan atau pengalaman tuan saya tidak sangkal tetapi aya sangkal jatidiri tuan sbagai melayu..jika malu panggil diri melayu tolonglah jgan kusutkan lagi dilema melayu tapi pergilah secara baik.jadilah seorang muslim yang hebat di luar sana(antarabangsa) seperti ibnu sina.tentu saudara akan diterima oleh umat manusia sejagat..bagi sya tanah melayu tetap ada untuk orang melayu di muka bumi anugarah allah s.w.t.saya berdoa agar allah sentiasa kasihkan dan mengkasihani orang melayu di nusantara ini.amin

Faisal Zakaria said...

Good article Dr.
A somewhat disappointing ending however, but look at the responses you get for writing this. Truly awesome.
You deserve a hypothetical, cyber high five.

f_mgh said...

Salaam Mr. Azly PhD,

It's generally encouraging to know your inclination as to the Bumiputra policy that the government had launched to eradicate poverty and restructure the identification of races according to economic functions in Malaysia.

However, you should also take into cognizance several aspects of the socio-economic demography in our country. When we champion meritocracy, we know that the upshot shall impinge on the underpriviliged and, not least if not most importantly, the less networked.

You see, for these 30 years or so since DEB commenced, the target seems a moving one, making us assume those protected by DEB just cannot do it - they are a race of weaknesses with no or lacks of business acumen.

Fine and well. So, let's open up, or strip all the policies off so they stand naked, AND ensure:

i) Suppliers, who are mostly non-Bumiputra, provide raw materials or other supplies at EXACTLY THE SAME PRICE, OF COURSE SUBJECT TO TERMS & CONDITIONS OF THE AGREEMENT; meaning to say that it's a non-issue if purchases in bulk will enjoy better discount;

ii) Remuneration packages are offered equally between candidates irrespective of skin color; your inclination strongly suggests you know nothing about discrimination in the private sector where one candidate of a particular race is offered better remuneration as compared to the other despite both having equal qualification and competencies. These things are happening, so your cause for an end to the so-called social apartheid in Malaysia, eg education, shall also apply to the private sector. After all, technically speaking most private companies are enjoying government incentives, such as corporate tax and customs duty exemption, which are otherwise payable and become taxpayers' money;

iii) Businesses provide their services and do justice to the societies heedless of skin color;

iv) Equal treatment and meritocracy boil down to unity among different races, and only with such unity will we, government and private, be able to give out equal treatment when there is no love lost between one another; so, the best way to achieve unity among the Malaysians is the single system school. The argument, that national schools are not like vernacular schools which can ensure native language is mastered by its native speakers, does not hold water in the context of national unity. How can our children who attend different schools and receive their education in different medium of communication develop that love, affection and respect as fellow citizens if they don't know each other since they are small?

I hope I can continue with my arguments after this when I'm free.

f_mgh said...

Anonymous,

Dulu bangsa Melayu bertamadun tinggi, but for the distorted history.

f_mgh said...

The other anonymous,

i) What's the name of the Professor of National University of Singapore?

ii) Where did you get the fact that Nabi Muhammad SAW had 23 non-wives? Do you intend to incite anyone now?

iii) Where did all the Chinese and and Indians in China and India come from? To use your reasoning, can we say that they are not the original people of their respective countries and therefore shall not enjoy special treatment? After all, they did not come to being by growing out of the soil in those countries.

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komando said...

SHALLOW BRAINS COMES OUT WITH SHALLOW IDEAS AND CONCLUSIONS!

This land is god given - who ever claims to own it has made the biggest MISTAKE & ERROR in life!

DO WE REALLY OWN IT?

The world is owned by GOD almighty, we are here to used it and leave ALL OF it when we kick the bucket!

So lets be sincere and lets not wrong the rights and rights the wrong anymore!

We can't be staying and living in this world forever!

Max 100 years! If we can make IT.

So why shout about TANAH MELAYU!
As if you take it with you inside the grave!

Are the ULTRA MALAYS IN UMNO going to take ALL OF this land called Tanah Melayu into THEIR GRAVES & EVENTUALLY TO HEAVEN AS WELL?

You cometh with nothing and you gothe with nothing!

Only your good and bad deeds on earth in this life that you taketh with YOU!

Make or break, as long as there are morons out there who wants the land so much to remain as TANAH MELAYU let them be!

We shall see what they want to do with IT after their short life is snuff OUT!

WE ARE HUMANS AND WE ARE NOT IMMORTALS!

LETS ALL LIVE IN PEACE !

SALAM.

Anonymous said...

The alpha-wave programming was an interesting touch. At first it struck me as possibly out of place in a historical context - but then I remembered how many times I had, as a foreigner staying in Malaysia, described [to myself] some of the people I observed or interacted with as 'hypnotized'.........

Anonymous said...

When will the Malays themselves be awakened to the fact that the Ketuanan Melayu idea, just by having the thought of it in their heads and accepting and believing it as truth itself, could not even lift their spiritual or physical dimensions of wellness, but could instead skew their vision viewing the world, imprison not liberate their soul, and could demoralize not only the Malays themselves but all the people of all races in Malaysia ?

The Ketuanan idea is to have a forced racial inequality, yet it is false and foul in essence. In order to justify and accommodate it you simply need to warp your logic and lower your moral standard !

But when will the awakening of the Malay consciousness to this fact, and consequently the emancipation of the Malay soul take place?

Well, light at the end of the tunnel may only be seen on the day when all the indoctrination elements that exist in our education/pedagogical system be removed.

Thank you Dr Azly for your intellectual and spiritual audacity !

Anonymous said...

The fact is; WE hate each other... I'm talking about the majority from each major race here in Malaysia… We plain hate each other… The Malays hate the Chinese and the Indians and so are the Chinese to the Malays and Indians and so on and so on.... and that can be measured by multiple incidents of kepala lembu and kepala babi as simple examples..
Why we hate each other? History to answer..
How can we work “unity” out if we hate each other??

Anonymous said...

taksub dengan "unity" dan "equality"..
belajar teramat tinggi disuap dengan idea impian bernama kesamarataan..
bijak mengatur kata dengan bombastiknya perkataan..
hebat dengan rujukan literature, karangan dan buku2 ilmuan pujaan.. malah Al Quran..
Mudahnya tuan berkata2..
mengutuk bangsa yang kami cinta..
kami hanya berperisaikan ketuanan..
menangkis serangan demi serangan..
dari depan belakang kiri dan kanan..

Wahai tuan bijak laksana..
banyaknya ilmu penuh di dada..
tahukah tuan di sini ada..
pembuat, pengusaha dan penjual cina..
membekal makanan halal tiada..
tanpa ketuanan mengawal selia..
makan lemak babilah kami sekeluarga..
entah2 banyak yang sudah dicerna..
kami diminta berperi manusia..
menyerah hak berkongsi kuasa..
sedang mereka hormat tiada..
menunggu masa merampas peta..

kami hanya rakyat biasa..
boleh juga berbahasa inggeris walau hanya dengan word power biasa..
namun kami jua yang merasa..
sedang tuan ada di sana..

Anonymous said...

Ketuanan Melayu is a just a phrase to say to the rest of Malaysians, we have the right.

For the xxx party, it is a tune they play to the public so that they can rob, siphon, that's all they care! that's what they are zealous about: APs, 30%IPO to make them rich instantly. Dont you hear all these in their Party General Assembly?

the bongok will still talk about whether Melayu is the tuan in the Tanah Melayu. Which Malaysians do not know the Sultans and Agungs are always a Melayu? Even Mentri Besars must be a Melayu, nobody has a problem with that. DAP even agrees to that. Except those who tell you, the MB wont be a Melayu when somebody else take over.

So that the bongok will fight the others while the thieves having nice bungalows, nice properties overseas... in the midst of when stadium roof is collapsing, the MRRT etc.

I was one of the bongoks, for many many years. This is what I want to say: Must be God who opened the eyes of Malaysians with the 2008, and those whom he chose: the oppressed political parties then.

Lecture: Edward Said

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Lecture: Noam Chomsky

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Lecture: Jacques Derrida

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Lecture: Jean Paul Sartre

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Movie: 1984

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Movie: Animal Farm

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Movie: Chicken Run

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Poems: Rumi

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Dialogue on Religion: Karen Armstrong

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Dailogue on Religion: Huston Smith

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Islam

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Humanism

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Jainism

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Sikkhism

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Hinduism

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Bahai

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Confucianism

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Taoism

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The Bhagavad Gita

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Jesus of Nazareth

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Siddharta Gautama

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Prophet Muhammad (Pbuh)

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